Now it was Yugoslavia’s Turn to be Destabilized
The opening guns of financial warfare for the destabilization of the relatively prosperous Yugoslavia were the IMF’s 1980-84 demands for currency devaluation and an increase in the Yugoslavian Central Bank’s discount rate.
That currency devaluation immediately increased the debt; the interest rate hike slowed the Yugoslav economy. The drop in living standards created by those structural adjustments led to economic and political turmoil.
Then the 1984 U.S. National Security Council Directive 133 (NSD-133) titled “United States Policy towards Yugoslavia” and labeled “SECRET SENSITIVE,” contained the marching orders for the final fragmentation of that nation.
Further IMF-imposed structural adjustments denied the Yugoslav government the right to credit, money creation, from its own central bank, thus losing them the ability to fund crucial economic and social programs, industry, health care, education, etc.
Those structural adjustment policies included imposing a freeze on all transfer payments from the central governments to the outlying provinces.
A growth rate of 7.1% from 1966 to 1979 “plummeted to 2.8% in the 1980-87 period, plunging to zero in 1987-88 and to a minus 10.6% in 1990.”
Another currency devaluation (30%) accelerated the 140% inflation to 937% in 1992 and 1,134% in 1993, with GDP dropping 50% in four years.
Imported commodities flooded in to further disrupt domestic production and drain Yugoslavia’s hard currency reserves.
It was calculated that, under those policies, 1.9 million workers, out of a total workforce of 2.7 million, were headed for unemployment. (Read The simplicity of eliminating poverty and war will stun you to understand the rapid gains from an honest restructure policy.)
Simultaneous with the denial of Yugoslavia’s right to fund her outlying regions were offers to those provinces for funds and trade if they declared their independence.
German foreign minister Hans Dietrich Genscher was in almost daily contact with his Croatian counterpart, promoting independence.
The 1990-91 U.S. “Foreign Operations Appropriations Bill,” an annual event funding destabilizations, demanded separate elections in each of the six Yugoslav provinces with State Department approval of their conduct and outcome and, again, all aid to go to independent republics and none to the central government.
A total embargo imposed in 1991 was still in effect in June 1999 during the final breakup of Yugoslavia. Independence meant funding and trade for the provinces while continued federation with Yugoslavia meant continued embargoes and no funds.
A country that had been peaceful and relatively prosperous since WW II, with 30% of the marriages interethnic, erupted into civil war and–with continued overt and covert support from Germany and America–Macedonia, Slovenia, and Croatia were torn away from the Yugoslav federation.
The Serbian populations of the seceding provinces, who had forgiven the Western Christians for the slaughter of one-third of the Serbian men during Hitler’s holocaust and formed the multiethnic nation of Yugoslavia after WW II, were again facing second-class citizenship.
Now it was Bosnia-Herzegovina’s Turn
Western Christians allied with Muslims to give the Bosnia-Herzegovina secession the necessary majority voice. The November 1995 Dayton Accords, established under the threat of NATO intervention to suppress the ensuing struggle over who should govern, established a virtual colonial government which allowed the U.S. and the European Union to appoint a High Representative (HR) with full executive powers in civilian matters.
A constitution for Bosnia was written at those peace talks by the U.S. State Department stipulating the HR could overrule the government. That façade of democracy, the Parliamentary Assembly, simply rubber-stamped the decisions of the HR and his expatriate advisors.
Those dictates, called “Accords,” actually stipulated, “the first governor of the Central Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina is to be appointed by the IMF and ‘shall not be a citizen of Bosnia and Herzegovina or a neighboring state.’ ”
The elected president of the Serbian segment of Bosnia, who objected to forcibly selling off banks, water, energy, telecommunications, transportation, and metal industries, at firesale prices, was forcibly removed by NATO. Of course, these dictates were all carried out under the flag of “democracy.”
Then it was Kosovo’s Turn
As Bosnia-Herzegovina was being digested by the NATO alliance, the foundation for the breaking away of Kosovo was being laid. Due to fear of secession, the autonomous status of Kosovo had been revoked by Yugoslavia as ethnic Albanians increased from 40% at the end of WW II to 80%.
That political stalemate became violent when German and American intelligence armed the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA). Before that arming and training of the KLA into a force of 30,000 by outside powers, the Kosovar rebellion had been a peaceful one similar to Gandhi’s peaceful rebellion in India 50 years earlier.
Armed by German intelligence for years, the KLA surfaced in 1997 and started assassinating Serbian police officers and ethnic Albanian collaborators.
Yugoslavia sent in the army to suppress those externally armed insurrections. In February 1998, Germany’s BND and the Military Professional Resources (MPRI), retired U.S. generals under Pentagon contract, was a sure sign America’s CIA was still orchestrating this destabilization.
The Croatian General, Agim Ceku, in command of artillery in the ethnic cleansing of Serbs from the Krajina region of Croatia, taking over command of the KLA was more proof.
In a replay of the Dayton Accords, an assembly was convened in Rambouillet, France, to essentially dictate the carving off of Kosovo.
The prepared accords allowed for 50,000 NATO troops overseeing that autonomous republic. NATO was to be granted the use of airports, roads, rail, and ports free of any charges. NATO troops were not only not to be subject to Yugoslav law they were to have supremacy over Yugoslav police and authorities.
They were to be given the right to inspect any part of not just Kosovo but Serbia itself and the Kosovo economy was to be structurally adjusted as per the Bosnian-Herzegovenan economy described above.
NATO gave Yugoslavia only two choices: sign the accords (dictates) or be bombed. Virtually every serious diplomat of good conscience agreed they were articles of surrender that no sovereign nation could sign.
Those accords were little more than a disguised declaration of war. The world, of course, heard only the prepared press releases of an intransigent Yugoslavia as, with the support of the majority of their citizens who patriotically believed what they were told about Serbian atrocities, NATO proceeded to bomb the regional Orthodox Christians back to the 19th century.
The destabilization of Yugoslavia is a classic on how perception management is accomplished in what are called “democracies” with “freedom of the press.”
Before the bombing, Yugoslavia had several major political parties, opposition radio stations, and dissident publications. Each political party had its own newspapers, radio stations, and TV stations.
Milosevic had been elected three times, twice as president of Serbia and later as president of Yugoslavia. The Yugoslav president had a cabinet to discuss and decide policy.
He was president of a nation with an elected coalition parliament which included four major political parties, more than any other country in Europe, ranging fully from the left political spectrum to the right, and that approved all decisions. During that war, this governing process had even been shown occasionally on Western TV.
During the Western orchestrated coup overthrowing Milosevic, armed units seized all major TV, Radio, and newspaper outlets.
There remained essentially only one media. Just as in the West, all papers published the same stories and all were written the same. Just as Americans see the same news with the same slant on all TV channels, Serbs now found the same news with the same slant on all their TV channels.
A nation which once had a wide choice of views suddenly had only one view, that of the West.
On news beamed into Yugoslavia and to the citizens of the West, Milosevic was labeled a dictator in almost every news report.
Meanwhile, Croatian descendants of Hitler’s Ustase, who ethnically cleansed Jews, Gypsies, and Serbs during WW II—the Three-Thirds Doctrine: one-third of the Serbs to be deported, one-third forced to become Catholics, and one-third to be annihilated—who had just imposed a one-party press, and who had just ethnically cleansed several hundred thousand Serbs from Croatia and Bosnia, were simultaneously labeled democratic.
While Western puppets purge their territory of ethnic minorities even as the West is accusing Serbia of these atrocities, that besieged nation is the home to 26 ethnic groups, one million are refugees ethnically cleansed from former provinces of Yugoslavia, including 350,000 Serbs and others who fled Kosovo after NATO’s takeover of that province.
By 2005, there were so few Serbs left in Kosovo it was essentially ethnically cleansed. The long and short of it is that a highly moral society giving full and equal rights to all was presented to the world as ethnic-cleansing dictators while essentially fascist structures, covertly supported and coached by Western intelligence and Western military might, were ethnically cleansing the Serbs out of the birthplace of their culture.
There will be an occasional mild analysis of this perception management process after the fact but, as every social system protects itself and its own, even those cautious reflections will not become part of assigned, well-read history.
Thus it will remain largely unknown to most that the Kosovo rebellion was a civil war covertly organized and supported by the same governments militarily imposing the Rambouillet Accords. Some reality was expressed
[On Feb. 8, 2001] The major German television network ARD broadcast a special on the war entitled “It Began with a Lie.” This showed that the charges of mass murder, genocide and organized “ethnic cleansing” made against Belgrade were inventions of the U.S., German and other governments.
The Serbs knew the KLA had been armed and coached by U.S. and German intelligence to carve Kosovo off from Yugoslavia. They refused to sign the capitulation Rambouillet Accords, and, when the bombing began with the purpose of forcing Yugoslavians to sign away their sovereignty, were accused to have reacted by expelling the Albanian Kosovo population.
The excuse for bombing Yugoslavia was the supposed, but fictional, ethnic cleansing and genocide of Kosovar Albanians from Kosovo.
The ethnic cleansing of Serbians which took place as soon as that war was over went unreported in the American press. The “free” press should be called to account for not alerting the public to the fictions justifying that war.
NATO was aggressing against a peaceful society and Yugoslavia reacted just as any student of foreign policy would expect. They were not threatening anyone inside or outside their borders before the external orchestration of the KLA for a civil war, over 1,100 attacks on Serb police and Kosovar Albanian collaborationists, many fatal, and what struggles there were within their borders were reactions to this destabilization and forthcoming loss of a province Serbians consider the cradle of their civilization.
Houses were destroyed as the KLA were rooted out from where they were firing on Serb soldiers but no ethnic cleansing occurred until after NATO took over Kosovo and then it was an ethnic cleansing of Serbs.
That will make no difference. The bombings were Western pressures to force the Serbs to accept the loss of the heart of their culture and those reported atrocities was the demonizing of the Serbs.
These fictional Serb ethnic cleansings were kept in the world news throughout the war crimes trials even as the far greater war crimes of the aggressors, the total shattering of their country with the deaths of tens of thousands, disappears from all except the most deeply researched history.
The original perception management figures of over 100 massacres with 100,000 to 500,000 Albanian men missing and thought to be slaughtered were reduced to a still sensationalized 10,000 expected to be found in mass graves when NATO first entered Kosovo.
Inspection of the alleged 30 mass gravesites by an FBI team turned up 200 bodies and dropped the Kosovar externally orchestrated civil war body count to 2,108 killed by all participants, the Serbs, the KLA, local grudge settlements, and NATO bombs.
Emilio Perez Pujol, the head of the Spanish Forensic team conducting the investigation, said “not one mass grave was found.”
No mass graves in Kosovo and this rather low body count when an entire nation was being militarily fragmented by covertly funded and orchestrated opposition forces, when under direct attack by those same foreign military forces, as well as the one million refugees within Serbia from the destabilization and fragmentation of Yugoslavia, testifies to a successful NATO propaganda blitz, that Mighty Wurlitzer wrapping society within a belief system, which is never addressed in depth by the media of record and thus does not get into history.
When to the above disinformation we add the Pentagon wordsmiths’ claim of the destruction of one-third of the Serbian military, 122 tanks, 454 artillery pieces, and 222 armored personnel carriers, and the postwar investigation by General Wesley Clark, the NATO commander of that war, alerting us “only 14 tanks, 20 artillery pieces, and 18 armored personnel carriers” were destroyed, the outline of a planned perception management campaign becomes clear.
Quite simply, the American-NATO assault on Serbia-Kosovo destroyed about 50 of Serbia’s major weapons of war and very few soldiers while killing more civilians than Serbia.
The real target was obvious, Serbia’s economic infrastructure and their government. Under the ultimate oxymoron of a humanitarian war, which depicted the West as saviors, they bombed 15 defenseless cities around the clock for 78 days.
The successfully destroyed real targets of precision bombing were heating plants for entire cities, 344 schools, 33 clinics and hospitals, power plants, food processing plants, pharmaceutical plants, bus and train depots, electrical grids, bridges, factories, power stations, trains, airports, water supply systems, warehouses, oil refineries, fuel storage, chemical factories, museums, and TV and radio stations.
Among the commercial buildings destroyed were twin tower skyscrapers eerily reminiscent of the World Trade Center destroyed in the 9/11/2001 terrorist attack on America.
After the destruction of Yugoslavia was carried out under the false flag of oppression and genocide in Kosovo, 350,000 Serbs, Gypsies, Slavic Muslims, Croations, Jews, Turks and anti-fascist Ethnic Albanians were driven out of Kosovo.
After defeating the defending Serbian army, the Kosovo occupation army claims not to have been able to prevent this ethnic cleansing by the very forces they were financing, arming, and coaching.
Kosovo declaring independence in February 2008 and Montenegro operating independently, the “Great Game” of keeping those dozens of ethnic groups “Balkanized” goes on.
Powerbrokers within NATO are concerned with Yugoslavia only as a small battle within one or more of the four major, ongoing, worldwide struggles:
1 The splitting of the Roman Empire into Eastern Orthodox Christianity and Western Christianity starting in the 4th century. This created the Eastern Orthodox Christian East and Christian West fighting over territory on the boundaries between those religions yet today, and it is obvious that, without the support of NATO nations, Yugoslavia’s Western Christians would not have had the political strength to shatter that once peaceful federation.
2 The 1,300 year struggle between both Eastern and Western Christians and Muslims, a battle between the Muslim East and the same Christian West. The current alliance of the West with Balkan Muslims is only a temporary strategic decision of managers of state.
3 The 70-year-battle between communism and monopoly capitalism, the Cold War. Most, but not all, communist Russians were Eastern Orthodox and most, but not all, East European capitalist believers were Western Christian. This is the historic in-step march of religion and governments.
Of course, that it was a battle against communism was fictional. The battle would have been engaged no matter what the form of government if its property rights laws did not permit control by power and wealth.
4 And then, the centuries of battles over who will control world trade and thus who will claim title to wealth. This battle over the world’s wealth is between the fragmented periphery of empire and the same allied, coordinated, and powerful West.
That last struggle, managers of state utilizing religious and political loyalties to control the wealth producing process within Eastern Europe, is the one that counts.
Fragmenting Yugoslavia was a replay of previous Balkanizations, the fragmenting of the Ottoman Empire into small, defenseless, emirates beholden to imperial centers, and the establishment of puppet governments throughout the world.
James Petras’s newly released, The Power of Israel in the United States, chapter six, The House of Horrors: Torture, Assassinations and Genocide, summarizes this process.
President Clinton’s Energy Secretary Bill Richardson spelled out America’s Balkan policy a few months prior to the 1999 bombing of Yugoslavia:
This is about America’s energy security.… It’s also about preventing strategic inroads by those who don’t share our values. We’re trying to move these newly independent countries toward the west…. We would like to see them reliant on western commercial and political interests rather than going another way. We’ve made a substantial political investment in the Caspian, and it’s very important to us that both the pipeline map and the politics come out right.
The policies of state here are obvious: isolating Russia politically, reducing its control over the oil and gas deposits in the Caspian basin, and piping those hydrocarbons to Europe.
Germany reached an agreement with Croatia, announced in the UN, for a pipeline through its territory and, even as the bombs were falling on Yugoslavia, officials of Georgia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, and Moldova (GUUAM) were in Washington, DC, signing a regional alliance which included discussions of oil pipeline export routes to the West.
There was also high interest in the rich minerals of Kosovo, the Trepca mining-manufacturing complex which was too valuable to bomb and was arbitrarily turned over to Albanian Kosovars.
The suspected oil and gas deposits within the Dinarides Thrust, and other mineral wealth of Yugoslavia like coal and bauxite, planned for diversion to the West which will deprive Eastern Orthodox Christians of that wealth, will fatally weaken that tiny enclave of socialism, while simultaneously increasing the wealth of Western Europe.
The final arbiter of property rights is military power. While the Trepca mines rich in gold, lead, zinc, cadmium, silver, and coal were considered the most valuable piece of real estate in the Balkans and Soros tried to gain title to them.
All knew the world’s great oil-bearing sands go from the Middle East, through the Caspian Basin, and end at Romania. The straightest route to Europe for that oil is through Yugoslavia.
As the standard of living of Russians dropped possibly 50% as discussed earlier, the resource wealth of the former Soviet federation was pouring into the victorious West. Control of regions and populations so as to control resources and the wealth producing process was what the battle was about all along.
The worm is turning as the price of oil rises and China, Russia, the oil producing nations of Central Asia, and Iran position themselves both to retain their share of oil and the freedom to market oil. The tenacity of the Iraqi opposition gave them that space.
Though the human cost is greater today, the destruction of the economic infrastructure of Yugoslavia and the demonstration in Iraq of the ability to decapitate any leadership and destroy an entire army from a safe distance is a replay of the raiding parties of the cities in the Middle Ages controlling the countryside to maintain its dependency upon the city (see From Plunder by Raids to Plunder by Trade).
That empires manufacture excuses to gain the support of the people to destroy a potential rival is documented history.
One need only analyze how far worse human slaughters failed to affect strategic decisions to convince one that the death of 2,108 Kosovars, both Albanian and Serb Kosovars and killed by the Serb military, the Kosovo Liberation Army, and by Western bombs, in Kosovo’s NATO-designed and supported civil war was not the reason for NATO’s bombing of Yugoslavia.
That statement answers its own question. Over 1.3 million have died in Iraq due to American-led sanctions and, when statistically measured as to how many would be alive without those wars, over 1.2 million in the two American-led Gulf Wars.
One-third of the East Timorese (200,000) died in the Indonesian suppression of their independence utilizing American-supplied weapons.
The estimated number killed in five years of ethnic cleansing in Rwanda is 500,000. Fifty thousand have perished in the 20 year conflict between Ethiopia and Eritrea, a province of Ethiopia, the independence of which was covertly supported by America during the Cold War.
Two million have perished in the 16 year struggle in neighboring Sudan. The estimated number killed in Russia’s ongoing Chechnya suppression is 100,000 and counting.
Thousands were killed when Croatia, with the backing of the United States and Germany, “ethnically-cleansed” her territory of over 500,000 Serbs when breaking from Yugoslavia.
And one of the worst slaughters in history is taking place in the Congo, over 4 million killed and counting, as capitalism desperately attempts to hold onto probably the richest mineral deposits on earth.
Note how, after the fragmentation of Yugoslavia, the Eastern Orthodox Serbs are surrounded by the Western Christian nations of Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Slovenia, and Croatia, all of which are now a part of NATO. T
he West had Yugoslavia embargoed throughout the decade of the 1990s as she was being destabilized and the Serbs simply refused to collapse.
Until its destabilization, and despite the embargo, Yugoslavia was quite prosperous relative to the surrounding nations before the total shattering of her industry by NATO bombs and her subsequent loss of access to resources. That successful federation could not be left to stand.
Just as Cuba is still under economic and financial assault to prevent the world from observing the higher standard of living obtained by her citizens when free of domination by Western capital, Eastern Europe could not be totally restructured along Western political and economic lines so long as Yugoslavia remained intact with her citizens well cared for and her industry underselling Western products throughout Eastern Europe.
Nor could NATO permit an opposing ideology with an intact military west of the planned new line of defense, Romania, Bulgaria, and Greece. It is for this reason the Serbian economic infrastructure was pulverized by NATO bombs and missiles.
Once the richest, Serbia is now expected to become one of the poorest nations in Eastern Europe, her citizens cannot be properly cared for, she cannot arise as an example for other dependent countries for generations, and she cannot afford to maintain a powerful military.
If Western capital dominates the economies and controls the governments of the fragmented former Yugoslavia, if oil pipelines from the Caspian oil basin and the Middle East are built across Turkey and the former Yugoslavia to reach Europe, if Montenegro is successfully separated from Serbia, if the natural resources of the Balkans comfort Western consumers, and if that once relatively prosperous region becomes a market for Western industries, we will be observing the success of the Grand Strategy of the breakup and impoverishment of Yugoslavia by international capital.
In The simplicity of eliminating poverty and war will stun you we learn that roughly half the American economy is the waste of monopolization doubling the cost of products and services.
The Yugoslav economy did not have the massive unearned monopoly profits or the highly wasteful management superstructure as in a monopolized capitalist economy.
As products and services produced under the management of labor and direct financing of industry by the central bank could be sold or contracted much cheaper than Western products, without the fragmentation and embargo of Yugoslavia it is the Yugoslavs who would have dominated those markets.
It is they who would have become wealthy, and, the most dangerous of all, the rest of Eastern Europe had a similar industry-labor history. They and the entire world would have observed the Yugoslav success under their alternative form of government and labor-management relations and many would establish a similar socialist market economy.
Totally ignored in the Western press is that the standard of living of virtually all of Eastern Europe today is far below what it was before their re-absorption by the West even as Russia provided resources to those countries at 20 to 30% below world prices.
Only a massive reallocation of world resources and markets to that region can change that. This is demonstrated in analyzing the only partially successful East German assimilation by West Germany even with $1.5 trillion spent subsidizing the East Germans.
With Russia now increasing the price of their resources to Eastern Europe to world levels over a ten year period, allocation of resources to the struggling East Europeans is declining, not expanding.
The survival of Western neoliberal economic philosophy required the destabilization of Yugoslavia and the severe crippling of their industrial infrastructure as well as that of any other nation daring to maintain their independence, Cuba for example.
Rather than honestly sharing technology and markets with Eastern Europe, powerbrokers are solving the problem by a socialist structure providing food, fiber, and shelter to the citizenry (the cost would be half that of a monopolized economy), those cheaply cared for workers would work for $2 an hour in Western owned industries, those surplus values will be exported, and the profits banked monopolists in the West.
A full accounting of the profits from those Eastern markets as well as the multiplier factor as the money from locally employed labor circulates within the economies of Western nations will show that, to the winners, the breakup of Yugoslavia was one of the most profitable combinations of economic, financial, covert, and overt warfare in history.
It is nothing less than Germany’s 100 year dream of gaining control of Eastern and Central Europe to obtain their resources and markets for the 1000 year Reich. The only difference is the Western imperial nations have given up on battling between themselves over the world’s resources, have allied together to maintain control of the wealth producing process, and, hoping to get their share, their East European Cousins are joining that Western alliance.
In September, 2000, the very month this author’s original work came out with the above revelations, that American money was covertly financing elections in both Serbia and Montenegro became common knowledge and the U.S. Congress openly authorized $10 million to Serbs and Montenegrins economically and politically breaking ranks with their government and thus were prime prospects as puppets to run “imperial democracies” in that part of the world.
This standard covert policy of the Cold War was secret and thus unknown to citizens of the Western imperial nations. But, where previously it was all covert, ever since the successful destabilization of the Soviet Union and—with the exception of China and a few others—the U.S. has been both covertly and overtly financing elections of emerging nations throughout the world.
These struggles to control electoral processes by imperial nations are far more intense than we address here. Run an Internet search for “Ukraine, Belarus, elections,” keep refining those key words and keep broadening out to other parts of the world. There are many more well-funded NGOs than George Soros’ destabilization foundations printing textbooks and organizing political groupings around the world.
The final destabilization of Yugoslavia provides a textbook example of what has been standard covert practice destabilizing functional democratic governments worldwide throughout the Cold War that were not accepting control from the imperial centers:
1 A ring of radio stations were established around Serbia beaming in perception management propaganda (control of beliefs, and thus control of elections, is standard practice worldwide).
2 Suitcases full of American and German cash supporting opposing newspapers, news agencies, broadcasters, political parties, think tanks, student groups, “human rights” organizations, and trade unions were passed out (again control of beliefs and control of elections).
3 Opposition forces were given access to satellite communications while Yugoslav loyalists were denied access (this is why President Chavez of Venezuela and others are putting up their own satellites).
4 In the final push mobs were armed, coached, and financed to take over the media. The Serbs no longer controlled any major media within their own country. Again, this was to control beliefs, thus to control elections, and all to control resources and the wealth producing process.
All who followed how overthrows of governments were accomplished all over the world by the imperial nations during the Cold War, knew the leaders of the mobs which burned the Yugoslav parliament and other centers of power of the Milosevic government were coached, financed, and even armed, by German and American intelligence.
In any of the nations allied against Yugoslavia, any opposition political group would be arrested if they were funded by outside powers trying to overthrow the government. Yet, even as they were being labeled as dictators, the Yugoslav government was not even arresting those that were openly funded by the very outside powers overthrowing them even though how this money was pouring in and funding the opposition was discussed over the Yugoslav national news.
Even as Western media parroted Western intelligence service wordsmiths as Yugoslavia being a “dictatorship,” Canadian observers reported the election as open as any election in Canada, with no police visible, and opposition literature widely distributed.
When a nation is targeted for destabilization, or there is need to suppress a tendency for independence in countries already under control, the National Endowment for Democracy (NED), George Soros’ destabilization foundations, such as the Open Society Institute and others, fund opposition groups, such as the Center for International Private Enterprise, Humanitarian Law Center, Center for Democracy Foundation, Belgrade Center for Human Rights, European Movement of Serbia, G-17 economists, Center for Anti-War Action and Media, think tanks, student groups, and many others, all claiming to be private groups but they, and many more, are actually funded by the American Congress through the NED which provides the crucial service of funding puppet media and politicians.
This covert funding of opposition forces through NED and other means is standard practice worldwide. In short, Western powers were practicing total control of governments and media and military suppression of dissent, the very accusations of dictatorship they level at every country not safely under their imperial umbrella.
Before they had even taken office, Serbian opposition leaders met in Bulgaria with the IMF, the World Bank, and the leaders of NATO to finalize the fine points on the takeover of Yugoslavia.
This included structural adjustment abandonment of protection of citizens imposed upon most nations on the periphery of empire and included the takeover of their economy by the German mark and eventually the Euro.
With the various former Yugoslav provinces using the German mark or the Euro as their currency, Serbians can no longer create their own money severely curbs their funding of essential industries.
Where the Western-imposed new leaders of Croatia, Slovenia, and other regions were direct descendents of Hitler’s Ustase death squads with every intention of making second class citizens of their Eastern Orthodox neighbors, the new leaders being installed in Serbia have no illusions as to the hard future the West will be imposing upon them.
After all, poverty is many times higher in the East and the successfully destabilized Soviet Union than it was under Communism. (Russia has since recovered.)
Even the Ukraine, the breadbasket and industrial heartland of the East, which dutifully followed all the prescriptions of the IMF, the World Bank, and NATO, was prostrate and essentially begging the West for food.
These leaders are aware that Western promoted structural adjustment prescriptions created that poverty. Their lack of choices is being only partially rectified by again realigning with Russia.
Key to any destabilization is the writing of history. Personal friends of Milosevic were being assassinated while his opposition leaders were untouched. These opposition leaders, even Ibrahim Rugova the Albanian secessionist leader, had their own media and were openly campaigning against the government.
Yet Milosevic was being portrayed as a killer of his democratic opponents. The truth was a lot of money was being spent to finance assassination of key members of the Yugoslav government and those positions were being taken over by the Western-backed opposition.
At his trial Milosevic brilliantly proved it was NATO that was the war criminal. NATO’s prime witness, Rade Markovic former head of the Serbian secret service, took the stand. Prosecutor Jeffrey Nice was shocked when his prime witness described how his torture in the Belgrade jail had been overseen by two US-West European agents, Mihailovic and Petrovic, and he was finally offered a good life with a new identity if he would testify against Milosevic.
Even realizing he was in mortal danger, Markovic testified that, far from being guilty of causing the exodus from Kosovo, Milosevic had ordered the flow of refugees to be stopped.
As the prosecution desperately tried to stop their own witness, he went on to testify that Milosevic “came down hard on hate crimes and more than 200 such charges were filed against police and a like number against the army.”
Any testimony in which the prime witness had been tortured to testify for the prosecution should have shut down the trial and placed the witness under protection. Instead the testimony was ignored and Markovic was returned to the Belgrade prison.
Where Markovic’s earth-shaking testimony at the trial of the century was totally ignored by the wire services, on September 6, 2002 some news about Markovic favorable to the prosecution was reported: “According to Markovic’s signed statement from a Belgrade jail Milosevic ordered him to remove bodies of civilians killed in Kosovo.”
Obviously their witness was again tortured and this time the prosecution was not going to take a chance on his live testimony. No legal body can justify returning a prisoner to torturers and an honest court would have thrown the case out as soon as such dictatorship tactics were exposed.
But this was not an honest tribunal. It was established by NATO, paid for by NATO, and staffed with prosecutors and judges who knew what they were there for. They were there to write history as NATO wanted it written.
The designers of the destruction of Yugoslavia writing their own history was in deep trouble and Milosevic’s death while at trial solved many problems.
America executed the same plans for Saddam Hussein which, even though he was a U.S. ally for years, had at least some relevance to reality. It has no reality in Yugoslavia.
The war against the Taliban in Afghanistan is instructive. It seems the policy was primarily to take no prisoners, openly stated on TV by U.S. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, and relatively few were taken.
Those essentially executed rather than taken as prisoners are enemies of the countries financing the International Criminal Tribunal. Although this is against the rules of both decency and war, one can be sure there will be no war crimes charges against those responsible.
The extent of those war crimes can be judged by 500 of the 700 prisoners at Guantanamo were released after six years of interrogation and torture. There interrogators finally concluded they were totally innocent.
The managers of state of the now allied imperial centers of capital know well their power, use it ruthlessly, and leave weak countries no alternative.
Once the powerful Soviet federation was destabilized, virtually every country in the world was at the mercy of the well organized, and allied, imperial centers of capital.
This highlights why only by allying together can the impoverished world, within whose borders are most of the resources, gain the negotiating power to attain full freedom and equal rights.
The guarantees of all Yugoslav workers for jobs, free health care and education, pensions, paid maternity leave, six week vacations, low-cost recreation, and cheap food and rent was replaced in the breakaway provinces with 20% unemployment and a vastly lowered standard of living.
Analyzing the sharply lowered living standards of the dozen Eastern European countries religiously and culturally tied to the West and slated to be allies, provides a clue to the bleak future of countries not religiously and culturally tied to the West and not viewed as natural allies. The very word “slave” is derived from what are now the Eastern Orthodox Slavic people of Eastern Europe (check a major dictionary).
The fate of the highly efficient VSZ steel complex in Slovakia provides another glimpse. With the breakup of Czechoslovakia, the collapse of all Eastern European countries, and the imposition of IMF-World Bank structural adjustments, the local markets for VSZ steel disappeared, markets in the West were protected from VSZ’s low priced, high quality, steel, the once-booming steel complex ran out of money, and, under IMF-World Bank rules, they could not be financed by the Slovakian central bank.
This prostrate industrial jewel was picked up by America’s U.S. Steel for the bargain basement price of $450 million and now provides 25% of their steel making capacity. Slovak steel workers were paid roughly $2 an hour against U.S. Steel workers pay in America of $35 to $45 an hour.
High quality Slovakian steel will be sold on the world steel market, those mills will operate at full capacity, any overcapacity will be alleviated through lowered production in America, West Europe, and Japan, and the huge profits generated in the Slovakian mills will disappear into the accounting books of U.S. Steel.
The labor of both Slovakia and America will take a loss and all gains will go to the owners of U.S. Steel. This same scenario will play out in other industries.
Like the underpaid developing world, Eastern Europe will gain only a little because their pay is too low to provide adequate buying power, labor in the developed world will eventually lose buying power as their jobs are taken by underpaid Eastern European workers, and Japanese and other steel producers will have to lower steel and labor prices or lose market share.
This will be the well-understood cyclical crisis of over production of monopoly capitalism compounded by the abandonment of economies once seen as crucial to protect against fast expanding socialism and further compounded by the melding of high-paid capitalist economies with low-paid former socialist economies.
Eliminating monopolies through full and equal rights—see The simplicity of eliminating poverty and war will stun you—permits economic increases equal to the invention of money, printing press and electricity.
Monopolization by the powerful has been the cause of poverty of the citizenry throughout history and still is today. The continual preaching of the necessity and efficiencies of massive blocks of capital is only parroting of long-standing protections of wealth and power.
The link just above demonstrates fully 60% of America’s finance capital structure as actually lowering economic efficiency over 50% and outlines simpler and cheaper ways to accumulate capital for building and operating tangible, productive, industry and services.
The standard of living of all Eastern Europe and the destabilized former Soviet federation is far lower than 20 years ago.
The collapse of currencies, buying power, and industries in Mexico, Southeast Asia, parts of Latin America, and the former Soviet Union meant their citizens were impoverished as their resources and production of their labor were purchased by the imperial centers well below the previous norm. (Most of South America has declared their freedom from the imperial centers of capital and, with America’s mighty military too busy to reclaim what was once their secure periphery of empire, this may quickly change.)
Watch for fast developing China and India, the recovery of Japan and the Asian Tigers, the fising price of raw commodities, and the rising price of oil to strengthen those newly free nations.
If they, or any major share of them, ally with fast developing Asia, containing that powerhouse will be the biggest threat imperial monopolists ever faced.
That threat has materialized and is being met. China’s signing 50 cooperation agreements across Africa along with 800 of their corporations doing business there triggered America to established AFRICOM.
The stated purpose of building a planned 24 military bases is they will be addressing health, education, democracy and economic growth. But the world is now aware and this replay of militarily controlling resources is not likely to work.
A good place to start reading these pages is The simplicity of eliminating poverty and war will stun you
Those crucial 168 words describing an honest, efficient, capitalist economy. Does anyone have the ear of President Barack Obama’s Economic Recovery Team?
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 Ramsey Clark, Hidden Agenda: U.S./NATO Takeover of Yugoslavia (New York: International action Center, 2002); Michel Collon, Liars Poker: The Great Powers, Yugoslavia and the Wars of the future (New York:: International action Center, 2002); Michel Chossudovsky, The Globalization of Poverty: Impacts of IMF and World Bank Reforms (London: Zed Books, 1997), chapter 13; Michel Chossudovsky, “Dismantling Yugoslavia, Colonizing Bosnia,” CovertAction Quarterly (Spring, 1996), pp. 31-37; Michael Parenti, To Kill a Nation: The Attack on Yugoslavia (New York: Verso, 2000), p. 26; William Tabb, The Amoral Elephant: Globalization and the Struggle for Social Justice in the Twenty-First Century (New York: Monthly Review Press, 2001), chapter 6, espec. pp. 149, 153-54; Sean Gervasi, “Germany, U.S., and the Yugoslavian Crisis,” CovertAction Quarterly (Winter 1992-93), pp. 41-45, 64-66; David Lorge Parnas, “Con: Dayton’s a Step Back—Way Back,” Peace (March/April 1996), pp. 17-22; McClintock, Instruments of Statecraft, pp. 71-82; Catherine Samaray, Yugoslavia Dismembered (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1995; Charles Lane, Theodore Stranger, Tom Post, “The Ghosts of Serbia,” Newsweek. April 19, 1993, pp. 30-31; Dusko Doder, Yugoslavia: “New War, Old Hatreds,” Foreign Policy (Summer 1993), pp. 4, 9-11, 18-19; Thomas Kielinger, Max Otte, “Germany: The Presumed Power,” Foreign Policy (Summer 1993), p. 55. This was essentially acknowledged by former Acting Secretary of State Lawrence Eagleburger on the McNeil/Lehrer Report (May 6, 1993), and many other talk shows and news programs, pointing out that there were those who pushed for the collapse of Yugoslavia, specifically pointing to Germany. On that same show, Michael Elliot of the respected British publication, The Economist, agreed.
 Ibid and Parenti, To Kill a Nation, chapter 10, p. 105. check Jane’s Defense Weekly, especially May 10, 1999; Linda Robinson, “America’s Secret Armies,” U.S. News & World Report (November 4, 2002), pp. 38-43.
 Ibid; Check later articles and books by those same authors; Parenti, To Kill a Nation, chapter 11.
 The Romanian death squads under Hitler’s occupation were called The Iron Guard. In Latvia they were called Vanagas.
 Parenti, To Kill a Nation, chapter 15, p. 12, 28-29; Fidel Castro, Capitalism in Crisis: Globalization and World Politics Today (New York: Ocean Press, 2000), p. 209.
 “Big Lie Exposed,” Workers World, April 12, 2001.
 The KLA engineered the ethnic Albanian exodus from Kosovo under the coaching of imperial intelligence services who were carefully writing history to justify the destruction of Yugoslavia. Only an alert researcher on the ground in Kosovo can research the truth. Jared Israel’s posting on the Internet, “Why Albanians Fled During the NATO Bombing: The Truth about What Happened,” Interview with Cedda Pralinchevich, will provide insights. Cedda Pralinchevich is very persuasive that Albanians were fleeing upon orders of their leaders and, in their culture, not obeying was not an option. Kosovo declaring their independence as we write, backs up our first analysis at the time that NATO preserving Kosovo as a Serbian province were only cover stories for that province being carved from that nation.
 Parenti, To Kill a Nation, chapter 14.
 See endnote 32. For reduced Serbian losses: Parenti, To Kill a Nation, chapter 16; Richard J. Newman, “A Kosovo Numbers Game,” U.S. News & World Report, July 12, 1999, p. 36.
 George Monbiot, A Discreet Deal in the Pipeline, The Guardian, 15 February 2001.
 See endnote 32; Parenti, To Kill a Nation, chapter 16. Run a Google/Nexus-Lexus Internet search.
 Castro, Capitalism in Crisis, pp. 215-17; James Bamford, Body of Secrets: Anatomy of the Ultra Secret National Security Agency (New York: Doubleday, 2001), pp. 70-75.
 Anthony Arnove, Iraq Under Siege (Cambridge: South End Press, 2002).
 Parenti, To Kill a Nation, pp. 12, 28-29, chapter 15.
 Los Angeles Times, September 26, 2000; New York Times, September 20, 2000; Senator Joseph Biden’s Senate Hearings on Serbia, July 29, 1999; Serbian Democratization Act, HR1064, September 5, 2000; sourced on various webpages. The definitive books have not yet been written on this hidden history. Watch for books and articles by Michel Chossudovsky, Jared Israel, Peter Gowan, Greg Palast, Michael Parenti, Noam Chomsky, and authors in Eastern Europe, Yugoslavia and Russia.
 This was Milosevic’s first defense. His continued defense outlined the entire process of the West’s destabilization of Yugoslavia far more thorough than we have outlined here. A lady spectator who came for the purpose of seeing Milosevic convicted said, “We have been deceived.” Milosevic’s death conveniently saved that court from having to make a decision. For the reasons outlined in chapter 6, sincere researchers will have to study Milosevic’s defense to write honest history.
 Heather Cottin, “Imperial Wizard: Soros is not just doling out cash—he’s fleecing entire countries” CovertAction Quarterly (Fall 2002, pp. 1-6). In “Regime Change: A Look at Washington’s Methods and Degrees of Success in Dislodging Foreign Leaders,” The Christian Science Monitor, January 27, 2003, Peter Ford outlines the 50 years of America destabilizing other governments we are addressing, including the demonization of progressive leaders like Milosevic and how George Soros’ destabilization foundations work. When knowledge of American covert funding of other nations’ elections surfaced, the U.S. Congress established the National Endowment for Democracy (NED) in 1983 to fund openly a part of what the CIA had been funding covertly (Washington Post, September 21 and 22, 1991 and William Blum, Rogue State: A Guide to the World’s Only Super Power (Monroe, ME: Common Courage Press, 2000), chapter 19.
 David Peterson, “Milosevic’s Death in the Propaganda System,” Z Magazine (May 2006).
 For a view of the threat to the West of an unbiased International Criminal Court read: Tuva Raanes, “A Divine Country All on Its Own,” World Press Review, October 2002, p. 17. As the year 2000 came to a close, 139 nations had signed a treaty to create that court. It was also established at The Hague, assumed legal jurisdiction in July 2002, and has major war crimes on its docket (run a Google search). Due to the history of immense terror imposed worldwide that we have been addressing, the U.S. is, under threat of severe economic and financial sanctions, pressuring countries to sign that they will not extradite Americans for war crimes in that court.
 Russia fears the Muslims on her Eastern borders. After all, it is they who pushed Eastern Orthodox Christianity out of their birthplace around Constantinople and it is they, as well as Western Christianity, which has been their primary enemy. Russia’s arming of Iran and China with currently unstoppable, ship sinking, sunburn missiles and they signing treaties with China, India, and Central Asian oil nations is the countervailing plan offsetting America’s plans to control Middle East and Central Asian oil.
 Deirdre Griswold, “Marxism, Reformism and Anarchism: Lessons from a Steel Mill in Slovakia,” Workers World (December 14, 2000).
 Mark Weisbrot, “The Mirage of Progress.” The American Prospect (Winter 2002), pp. A10-A123.