NSC-68, the Master Plan for the Cold War

The Maoist-led revolution in China in 1949 triggering an intense study by the U.S. State Department culminated in National Security Council Directive 68 (NSC-68) being presented to President Truman on April 16, 1950.

Although it was not signed until September 30, 1950 (as NSC-68/2), that document’s master plan for the containment of those breaks for economic freedom, actually only an affirmation and expansion of the top secret policies of 1947, NSC-4, NSC-4A, NSC-10/2, and others, officially became America’s secret policy of covert and overt financial, economic, political, and military, warfare.[1] The origin of this imperial Grand Strategy originated early in WW II (Google for, imperial, Grand Strategy, John Ikenberry).

Although the world was theoretically at peace, this directive called for increasing the U.S. arms budget by 350%, $13.5 billion to $46.5 billion. This was just under the $300 billion annual budget, measured in 1990 dollars, with which the United States fought the Cold War. U.S. economic and military power was being mustered to control the collapsed power structures of the former colonial empires and suppress those emerging nations’ breaks for economic freedom.[2]

While admitting there was no military threat to the West, Dean Acheson’s memoir, Present at the Creation, unwittingly exposed NSC-68 as the master plan for the Cold War.

It was a Grand Strategy for increasing the military budget of the United States by 350% to wage a worldwide covert war, or overt when necessary—Korea, Vietnam, the two Gulf Wars, the containment of Cuba, Iran, Iraq, Libya, and the destabilization and fragmentation of Yugoslavia—so as to suppress the rising tide of social and economic revolutions which were intent on breaking the dependency imposed upon them and turning their resources to the care of their own people.

There are just and necessary covert operations such as those by the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) during WW II. However OSS officers, the primary designers of post-WW II covert actions, and other Western intelligence services had been carrying out major covert operations to suppress the freedom of colonial nations well before the CIA was officially established.

Very large military efforts to reinstall or maintain the old ruling elite were undertaken in Greece and China before WW II ended. Tens of thousands of valiant patriots who had held two-thirds of Greece out of Hitler’s control were slaughtered.

At the same time, with U.S. support, Vietnam was being reclaimed by the French, who killed 20,000 in Haiphong harbor alone and another million Indochinese before America took over suppressing that break for economic freedom and slaughtered another three million in the 1960s and 1970s.

Britain retained her claim to Malaysia, for a while, by slaughtering thousands. With American and British support, the Dutch slaughtered 150,000 Indonesians in an unsuccessful attempt to reclaim those resource-rich islands using Dutch SS battalions which had been fighting for Hitler just weeks earlier.

In one bombardment alone, over 90,000 were killed in the suppression of Madagascar’s bid for freedom. This is, of course, a very incomplete list. Researchers have concluded the CIA interfered deeply in over 50 countries and only a little softer in many more.

OSS Cold Warriors were the primary staffers of the CIA when it was first established in 1947.[3] The experiences of these Cold Warriors in suppressing breaks for economic freedom, called insurgencies, between 1945 and 1950 were codified into NSC-68.

All previous Security Council directives were on a learning curve which built up to that April 1950 master plan. All later NSC directives were supplemental to it.

Most “insurgency” suppressions succeeded in maintaining the dependency status of the crucial “countryside” with its precious natural resources.

But China, with one-fifth of the world’s people, was a big loss reverberating in the boardrooms of major corporations, and protective government policies were called for. Managers of state knew if these revolutions succeeded the imperial centers would lose those cheap resources and profitable markets.

To maintain control, it was necessary to suppress (contain) both the rising socialist centers of capital to the East and the emerging countries who might take the rhetoric of democracy and freedom seriously and either form an independent trading bloc of nonaligned nations or tie their economies to other emerging centers of capital.

But with the world at peace the planners admitted there was no way to get even $1 billion a year out of either Congress or the American people, and NSC-68 called for an additional $33 billion per year, $300 billion in year-1990 dollars.[4]

Note the simultaneous occurrences of these major events:

1) The Korean War, proving communists were bent on world conquest.

2) The Congress for Cultural Freedom, along with other black ops of the CIA and other intelligence agencies, controlling the information flow to the world.

3) And McCarthyism silencing those with the credentials and authority to tell the people anything different.

These mutually supporting events made their debut in the first half of 1950 and within two months of the finalization of NSC-68, the master plan for the Cold War.[5]

None of this was accidental or incidental. It was all part of the Grand Strategies of managers of state to lock society within a belief system of enemies wanting to take over their governments.

While McCarthyism, painting any progressive person or philosophy as communist, was in full swing, it was political, social, and career suicide to be objective and intellectually balanced.

During those 40 years of suppression of dissenting opinion, the CIA paid compliant professors to write 25 to 30 fraudulent books a year. Right-wing think tanks were set up to produce thousands of books based on those original planted volumes.

Tens of thousands of CIA articles providing a base for those fraudulent books were planted in the media around the world.

For example, to control the world’s perceptions, 700 CIA articles were planted worldwide during the overthrow and assassination of Allende in Chile.

Reporters were provided news scoops in exchange for publication of fraudulent articles. Some of the leading columnists in the world, therefore, were planting this nonsense.

For over two generations social scientists have used, and are still using, those fraudulent books and articles as the foundation of their research. Such books have been cited by official textbooks for 50 years and will be in the future.

The intelligence agencies, corporate think tanks, and state departments of all powerful nations were busy writing the same distorted history. Intellectual figures and skillful writers throughout the Western world supported and coordinated building a framework of orientation to encase society within that belief system.

As the quotes above on the Congress for Cultural Freedom demonstrates, only academics and intellectuals on the fringe knew the difference and even they could only be very unsure of what was real and what was not.

When it was learned the CIA had supported the printing of these thousands of books, sincere academics sued for the titles to be revealed. But the Supreme Court ruled this would expose CIA methods and endanger national security.[6]

The imperial nations of Europe also had to worry about the loss of their heartland by the vote. Post-WW II France and Italy were especially vulnerable to ballot box revolutions.

Massive CIA funds were only barely able to avert that loss. It required more than money. The partisans were the only effective political force left in Italy and many were communist.

Allied troops released Mafia leaders from Mussolini’s prisons, armed them, and placed them in charge of the cities as they reclaimed the Italian peninsula.[7]

Control of the Italian elections were still in question and, besides other methods of funding conservative Italian politicians, the CIA was deeply involved in the super-secret P2 lodge, the primary group trying to prevent that election disaster for the Western world’s managers of state.

The only way to obtain a seat of power in the Italian government was through that secret lodge. The risk of an overthrow by the vote was still high.

For further belief system protection, the Bologna railway bombing which killed 84 people and injured 150, and other fatal bombings in Italy were strategies of tension planned and carried out by the CIA-controlled Italian intelligence services and, right by the covert action training manuals that have since surfaced, blamed on the “left.”

The explosives from that bombing and others were traced to some of the 139 buried weapons and explosives caches for the CIA’s “Operation Gladio,” under which those bombings were carried out.

In Italy alone, the right wing terrorist bombings blamed on the left numbered in the hundreds, killing several hundred and injuring many more.[8] Run an Internet search for “Gladio, Ukraine” and you will learn these strategies of tension have been refined to take control of former provinces of the Soviet Union and other strategic parts of the world.

So far (2008) it has failed in Belarus, the Ukraine success was reversed in 15 months, and those externally supported regime-change battles seem to be failing in other former provinces.

Iraq is being shattered into three or more defenseless political entities at the cost of well over a million lives with no end yet in sight. The per capita killing ratios of Korea and Vietnam have already been exceeded.

“The House of Horrors: Torture, Assassinations and Genocide,” chapter six in James Petras’s newly released The Power of Israel in the United States is a great summary of those policies world wide by imperial America. The guidelines of empire have never changed.

Besides the primary leaders and a substantial number of secondary leaders, the assassinations of targeted regions’ finest and most capable the past 60 years before they gained political power number in the many tens of thousands.

Operation Gladio was the Italian segment of the CIA’s “Operation Statewatch” operating, with the support of other intelligence services. Operation Statewatch was, of course, worldwide and the same dirty tricks were used by the CIA to discredit socialist elements in Japan.[9]

Though the cover story when exposed in September 1990 was these being “stay behind forces” in case the Soviet Union overran those countries, they were really there to control elections through strategies of tension and, if that failed, to take back by force, through assassinations, black ops, and military coups, any government lost by the vote.

Their permanent in-place numbers ranged from 400 operatives in Belgium to 2,000 in Italy. The super-secret covert operation’s bombings and blaming of the left in other European countries within the Western alliance were done more sensibly, where and when no one would be hurt.

The purpose of strategies of tension worldwide, creating terrorist acts and blaming the left, was, of course, to distort what the so-called left, primarily labor leaders, stood for and deny them any wins in the elections.

In 1997-98, there were exposures of South Africa’s secret service using and planting Soviet weapons in its own strategy of tension to blame the massacres of blacks on the African National Congress.

Such framing of opponents is an old political trick. Planting counterfeit letters, documents, and weapons is standard black ops for intelligence services and the CIA’s Mighty Wurlitzer had this down to a science.

Those bombings and other violence blamed on the left within Europe and throughout the world were to provide a base for those planted articles.

In fact, both actual and staged covert violence had been, and still are, used worldwide by imperial centers of capital to control elections both on the periphery and within their centers of empire. Witness the theft of both the 2000 and the 2004 elections which is well understood by those struggling to get the word out but are totally ignored by the mainstream press. As serious Internet search will find that story. Use keywords from Theft of the Election and you will find dozens of serious researchers.

In dozens of CIA-staged attacks by supposed Communist Huks in the Philippines, the hamlets were rescued by General Magsasay. As planned, the general was popularized as a hero and became America’s elected Philippine puppet.[10]

Strategies of tension to lock society within a belief system” are standard operating procedures of most, if not all, power structures.

The famed march of the Black Shirts in Italy supposedly putting Mussolini in power was staged three days after Italy’s powerbrokers handed to him the reins of power. That showing of unrest was to consolidate power.

Germany’s famous Reichstag fire was a month after Hitler had been given power in a secret January meeting of German powerbrokers. Again the purpose was to consolidate power by gaining followers through creating the belief of an imminent threat to social tranquility and security.

In The Korean War was a Strategy of Tension Justifying the Cold War Slaughter of Millions we address how the Korean War was just such a strategy of tension staged to provide the loyalty base to support the expense and worldwide violence of the Cold War.

“National Security” and the “National Interest”

Three tenets of monopoly capitalism are: pay the lowest possible price, charge all the market will bear, and give nothing to anybody, a great philosophy for powerbrokers with a monopoly on capital, technology, markets, and military might.

It takes no deep thought to realize these tenets of classical economic philosophy were implanted by an earlier power structure to maximize its claims to the wealth of others, that feudal residue in our philosophy, laws, and customs.

Landed aristocracy and financial aristocracy, through control of all positions of power in the Church and universities, had full control of what was taught. Those belief systems were philosophical tenets chosen for the protection of society’s power structure.

They were not philosophical tenets chosen by free thought to maximize the well-being of all within that society, let alone the welfare of the rest of the world’s citizens whose natural wealth and labors were confiscated to create the wealth of the imperial centers of capital.

The trumpeting of peace, freedom, justice, rights, and majority rule when in reality our society is massively unequal requires those Grand Strategies for controlling other people and their resources be kept secret (see From Plunder by Raids to Plunder by Trade for the plunder by trade story. My Eureka Moment and The simplicity of eliminating poverty and war will stun you explains unequal rights due to property rights law as applied to nature’s resources and technologies, denying others their rightful share). What is practiced is the total antithesis of what is preached.

Our next story is one such example. The Korean War was a Strategy of Tension to justify the slaughter of millions throughout the cold war. It succeeded, the Soviet Union was finally destabilized, and control of the resources of the world was retained. But that control is again threatened as the impoverished world continues to demand their freedom and America’s cover stories justifying such violence falls apart.

Those crucial 170 words describing an honest, efficient, capitalist economy. Does anyone have the ear of President Barack Obama’s Economic Recovery Team?

We are a cooperative publishing house dedicated to the elimination of poverty and war paying ourselves double the normal royalty and will pay higher yet as soon as we can.

We need more cutting edge researchers. If you can broaden our understanding and that of our readers, have a high-quality book within you that you wish to use in class, or just wish to reach the world, please Contact Us.

[1] Dean Acheson, Present at the Creation (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1987), pp. 373-379; the complete NSC-68 document can be found in Thomas H. Etzold and John Lewis Gaddis, Containment: Documents on American Policy and Strategy, 1945-50, (New York: Columbia University Press, 1978), chapter 7.

[2] Acheson, Present at the Creation p. 377; Etzold and Gaddis, Containment, chapter 7.

[3] Run a Google/Nexus-Lexus Internet search using keywords on these pages

[4] Acheson, Present at the Creation, p. 377. See also Stone, Hidden History, and Etzold and Gaddis, Containment.

[5] Stone, Hidden History; Coleman, Liberal Conspiracy; Saunders, The Cultural Cold War; Schrecker, No Ivory Tower; Etzold and Gaddis, Containment, chapter 7.

[6] Coleman’s Liberal Conspiracy, especially Appendix D, lists almost 200 of these thought-control books); Saunders, The Cultural Cold War, pp. 60, 63, 111, 140, 294-96, 105-106; see chapters 6-7-9 of this work.

[7] Run a Google/Nexus-Lexus Internet search using keywords, names, and countries on these pages

[8] William Blum, Rogue State:, chapter 4; Willan, Puppetmasters, chapters 1-3, pp. 146-159; Thomas, Very Best Men, pp. 65-66; David A. Yallop, In God’s Name (New York: Bantam Books, 1984); Saunders, The Cultural Cold War, p. 143; Gladio and Operation Statewatch was not uncovered until November 1990, too late for most books listed here so one must go to later sources. See also Prouty, JFK, chapter 3 and Blum, Rogue State, chapters 4 and 16.

[9] Chalmers Johnson, Blowback: The Cost and Consequences of American Empire (New York: Henry Holt & Company, 2000), p. 117.

[10] Prouty, JFK, chapter 3 and Blum, Rogue State, chapter 4.

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