They Who Write History Control History and thus Control the World

The great masses of the people in the very bottom of their hearts tend to be corrupted rather than purposely or consciously evil … therefore … they more easily fall a victim to a big lie than to a little one, since they themselves lie in little things, but would be ashamed of lies that were too big. —Adolph Hitler

To properly understand this chapter one must mentally straddle two time periods. The first is the creation of belief systems under which the Cold War was fought when there was little out there to read or hear except carefully crafted perception management with the citizenry largely unaware they were being encased in that belief system.

The second period is now as that perception management history is being understood. The exposures of America’s violent foreign policy, secret renditions to foreign countries for torture, tortures within secret American-operated prisons overseas, etc, are, in softened language, being covered on mainstream news.

Those egregious foreign policies are so violent and unethical that a substantial share of the citizenry has broken out form under the belief systems imposed the past 60 years.

That change in the Western world’s perception of themselves is one of the keys to this analysis that a revolution in world power relationships is near. People are good and will not tolerate such unjust violence in their name.

The CIA’s Mighty Wurlitzer Inoculated the World against Philosophies of Full and equal rights

Through the expansion of empires in the 19th century, the world had become the “countryside” from which to obtain resources for the European centers of capital.

Battling over the world’s wealth in World Wars I and II broke the nations of Europe. America was the only intact center of capital. The frightened leaders of the old imperial nations handed the baton to the United States to keep the entire world from gaining their economic freedom and America has done that job well.

To maintain control of the economies of periphery nations, it was essential that the influence of the once rapidly developing former Soviet federation be contained. Witness the waste within the Western capitalist system we are exposing.

The successful development of a federation, or even one nation anywhere in the world, with efficient and just property rights laws that challenged deeply the Western view of the world, would be a beacon for historians, social scientists, and intellectuals worldwide.[1]

Those economic and political philosophies, opposing belief systems, would be followed and controlling the rest of the world would be impossible.

Even if a small country like Cuba, gained their freedom and their living standards rose, the rest of the world would demand their freedom.

Hence the otherwise incomprehensible destruction, by the world’s most powerful nations, of small weak nations such as Korea, Vietnam, Indonesia, Chile, Nicaragua, Angola, Mozambique, the Congo, and many more who came close to gaining their freedom.

The drumbeat of the West being under imminent threat of attack by other nations was a strategy of tension so the citizens of these powerful nations would support the extremely violent and terrorizing suppression of those countries breaks for freedom.

As the Cold War was being won, Peter Coleman, author of Liberal Conspiracy, gained complete and unimpeded access to the archives of the Congress for Cultural Freedom, an American and European writers’ support group covertly established by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).

The path to easy publication of books and articles throughout the “free” world was through this worldwide, CIA-orchestrated and funded, strategy of tension creating the belief within Western populations they were about to lose their freedom to totalitarian dictators:

Five years after their [WWII] victory in 1945, the Western democracies were about to lose the battle for Europe, but this time to Stalinist totalitarianism [language created by the CIA] instead of Nazis. To combat this prospect, an intellectual guerrilla group was formed: over one hundred European and American writers and intellectuals met in Berlin to establish the Congress for Cultural Freedom to resist the Kremlin’s sustained assault on Western and liberal values. During the 1950s the Congress spread throughout the world, creating a network of affiliated national committees, a worldwide community of liberal intellectuals fiercely committed to democratic governance, but supported by grants which, unknown to most of them, originated in the Central Intelligence Agency. Through the Congress’s influential publications, conferences, and international protests, it kept the issues of Soviet totalitarianism and liberal [imposed word usage] anti-Communism alive in a largely hostile environment…. It was finally dissolved in 1967 amid the revelations of its funding by the CIA.[2]

Frances Stoner Saunders, in The Cultural Cold War: The CIA and the World of Arts and Letters, discusses this further:

Whether they liked it or not, whether they knew it or not, there were few writers, poets, artists, historians, scientists or critics in post-war Europe whose names were not in some way linked to this covert enterprise…. Defining the Cold War as a ‘battle for men’s minds’ it stockpiled a vast arsenal of cultural weapons: journals, books, conferences, seminars, art exhibitions, concerts, awards…. Endorsed and subsidized by powerful institutions, this non-Communist group became as much a cartel in the intellectual life of the West as Communism had been a few years earlier (and [since it was the intellectual left that was being targeted for control through the establishment of a Non-Communist left] it included many of the same people)…. It spied on tens of thousands of Americans, harassed democratically elected governments abroad, plotted assassinations, denied these activities to Congress, and, in the process, elevated the art of lying to new heights.[3]

According to Frances Stoner Saunders and others cited, covert coordination of the writings of Western authors—the CIA purchased, and produced perception management movies of, George Orwell’s books—Hannah Arendt, Irving Kristol, the CIA buying 50,000 of his books for free distribution worldwide, Isaiah Berlin, Sidney Hook, Arthur Koestler, Henry Luce, Bertrand Russell, who wrote some good stuff but was listed, Arthur Schlesinger Jr., Robert Conquest and Peter Coleman (who wrote most the earlier exposures above) and the simultaneous sabotage of media they could not control—such as Ramparts Magazine, The New Republic, the Nation, the New Statesman, and many more of which only a few were able to avoid bankruptcy from loss of their readers—was only one of the many “black ops” and covert actions, occasionally breaking out into overt actions, which became the hidden history of the Cold War.

That hidden history was first exposed by the Church and Pike Congressional Committees in 1975 and 1976 and by many researchers and reporters since.

To carry out its strategies of tension, the CIA had its own wire service and publishing companies. It set up and supported magazines, newspapers, and radio stations with solidly biased and beholden editorial staffs.

It established the largest news conglomerate in West Germany and major media in many countries, including Radio Free Europe, Radio Liberty, and Voice of America with roughly 100 transmitters each, and many lesser-known regional radio stations beamed to Asia, the Middle East, Latin America, and Africa. Attorney William Schapp says the CIA

alone—not to mention its counterparts in the rest of the American intelligence community—owned or controlled some 2,500 media entities all over the world. In addition, it has people ranging from stringers to highly visible journalists and editors in virtually every major media organization.[4] [To that we must add those controlled by the intelligence services of other nations.]

Canned Cold War editorials were sent to large and small newspapers all over the world. These editorials were available for any editor to restructure as his or her own creation and corporations and governments are doing this yet today.

Large independent think tanks were established, funded, and staffed with ideological supporters, as were think tanks attached to universities. Non-government organizations were established, given beautiful names and mission statements to pull in members, were firmly in place taking up financial, intellectual, and emotional space, would do many good things, but would never seriously challenge the rhetoric being poured out by the perception management system and many were specifically tools for destabilization of emerging nations.

After the Soviet Union’s destabilization, those NGOs poured into the Ukraine, Belarus, the former Soviet Eastern provinces, and into Russia itself printing textbooks and providing political guidance with the obvious goal of expanding unequal property rights law.

The Russians finally realized they were little more than arms of Western intelligence and foreign policy. Those hundreds of millions, totaling many billions, of dollars they freely spent came right out of black-op budgets.

By 2006, Russia was studying on how to rein in those supposed “charitable” organizations. The answer, simply expose them. Doing so reversed the 15 month old orange revolution in the Ukraine as they threw out the Western puppets busy looting their country.

Using negative buzzword labels to describe others as communist dictatorships, subversives, and extremists and using only positive words—peace, freedom, justice, rights, and majority rule—when talking of ourselves was the foundation of all perception management protecting a suppressing power structure.

This is designed to create fear, a strategy of tension, among the populations of the wealthy nations, locking them within a belief system, so they would support a policy of worldwide suppression and oppression under the cover of protecting freedoms and rights. Even the hard left still uses those buzz words which tells us only after imperialism’s collapse can honest history be written.

Foundations and NGOs established and funded by the CIA were only some of the many financial conduits providing the funds for this immense operation.

Money was passed covertly through more than 170 major, seemingly independent, foundations as well as the Marshall Plan and the American Federation of Labor.

The CIA’s covert perception management budget throughout the Cold War exceeded that of UPI, AP, and Reuters, even as those news services were the unwitting primary carriers of its carefully crafted views of the world.

Control of the thoughts of the world through control of media content was–until the training of Muslim extremists to destabilize Afghanistan and the Soviet Union, who then morphed into Al Qaeda, and the later renditions of many of these very same terrorists to interrogation (torture) centers around the world or their outright assassination–the CIA’s biggest covert action expenditure.

The CIA offering reporters news scoops in exchange for publication of fraudulent articles tells us some of the leading columnists in the world were planting these deceptions.

Reporters with a pipeline to sensational stories rose quickly to the top. According to Frances Saunders, well-known Washington columnists such as Joe and Stewart Alsop and Walter Lippmann were dinner and social friends with the managers of state and the CIA leaders—such as William Colby, Frank Wisner, and other managers of the CIA who were creating this propaganda and were in on the ground floor of Cold War planning.

Those columnists knew the Grand Strategy was to misinform the nation that it was under dire threat of military assault even as they knew this was pure fabrication. Those columnists knowingly cooperated and never breathed a word of the perception management, imposed belief systems, scheme.

The news media were scandalized when the Pike Committee exposed over 400 journalists as in the direct employ of the CIA. At $200 a month they were cheaper than prostitutes.Of course, “A central feature of this program was to advance the claim that it [propaganda] did not exist.”[5]

Though those programs were supposedly shut down when exposed, they actually expanded into the National Endowment for Democracy (NED) financing destabilization foundations to establish Western unequal property rights law to nature’s resources and technologies, denying them the right to establish full and equal rights throughout the former Soviet Federation.

Mind controlling stories were planted worldwide to control the world’s perceptions of that process, the current Iraq war, etc. Though quickly exposed this time, it has been admitted that those fabrications have found their way onto the Internet and blown back into America.

Such admissions were hiding the fact that the legal restrictions on planting propaganda in the American media had always been ignored.

Here is how the propagandizing of the so-called free world was accomplished: CIA leaders moved in the same social circles as, and were personal friends of, leading columnists, newspaper editors, and media owners.

With the base of fraudulent books and articles in place for researchers, the CIA would leak dramatic fictitious stories, missile gaps, Soviet aggression, threats from rogue terrorist nations, etc. The masses must believe such stories so they would support suppressing the colonial world’s breaks for freedom.[6]

When media leaders published these fraudulent stories they were passed over all the wire services and every media in the nation would publish or broadcast them, usually as front page news and lead articles.

Follow up interviews were channeled to prepared spokespersons and the threats were confirmed. In one day, not just the United States but much of the world faithfully believed what, in final analysis, was carefully crafted perception management.

These strategies of tension are still created so the masses will fully support whatever military campaign or covert activity is on the agenda of the State Department, National Security Council, or President.

Due to the quagmire in Iraq, the process has been exposed, good researchers are alert, the propagandists are occasionally getting caught, and the alert among the citizenry are watching this history-in-the-making play out.

Below the elite group of misinformers, addressed above, were accredited reporters who remained in good standing only by parroting what was fed to them.

No one, except the ideologically safe media, personal and social friends of CIA managers and top government officials, knew this was perception management and accredited reporters were straitjacketed.

To challenge those planted stories which the whole nation believed fully would be career suicide. Thus there were no reporters to seriously challenge such silly notions as El Salvador, Nicaragua, Guatemala, Chile, Cuba, Yugoslavia, and other tiny countries being serious military threats to anyone.

With the “free” media saturated with those articles carefully crafted to control the masses’ view of the world, perception management nonsense became recorded history.

Generally speaking, the media did not have reporters checking facts, they only had reporters rushing to the phone to be the first to report what they were told.

Once a social control paradigm was carried in every newspaper and newscast in the nation as fact and every applicable organ of government was backing it, no reporter or editor would dare challenge that report.

That process is still in place. It was operational in full force when Iraq was demonized in 2002-03 in preparation for the April 2003 invasion with the goal of installing an “imperial democracy” (a puppet government). The majority of Americans were firmly within earlier imposed belief systems believing they were under the dire threat, but this time most knew better.

The powerful were writing history, building a framework of orientation and wrapping society within a belief system, all to control the thoughts of the general public well into the future.

The intention was forever but these time-tested perception management practices are collapsing under the fierce Iraqi resistance, the gross corruption of the current (2001-08) managers of state, and rapidly-expanding alternative news.

We can thank sincere researchers and the alternative news for partially correcting more recent history but most of those earlier frauds will forever be cited in the writings of false history.

All empires have been practicing just such black-ops to protect their empires for centuries and America’s OSS and CIA were taught by Britain’s MI6.

The intelligence services of all the nations of what was an allied empire cooperated in misinforming their citizens to gain their backing supposedly to suppress tyrants but in reality to maintain control of the world.

Thanks to alternative media and the oppressed world developing their own media, this orchestrated propaganda machine, eventually described by agents of the CIA itself as its Mighty Wurlitzer,[7] may yet be exposed.

But in those earlier years, the route to becoming well-published and well-known was through parroting what came out of that Mighty Wurlitzer.

Certainly most writers and reporters had no direct contact with the Congress for Cultural Freedom. But Cold War hysteria created by the intelligence services and government press releases left them no option but to parrot the same line.

Thus, in those earlier years and yet today, most political and economic writers and columnists were unwittingly creating the literature-historical base to suppress the world’s break for freedom and protect the current power structure’s control of world resources and markets.

Those earlier gross fabrications and crafted perception managements are not only a major part of Western literature and history; they are Western literature and history.

It is to the credit of the conscientious academics during the Cold War that they did stand up and attempt to tell the American people the truth. But they were quickly silenced by McCarthyism, the House Un-American Activities Committee, and others encasing society within belief systems.

The destruction of the careers of 300-plus blacklisted Hollywood stars and writers, as was pointed out during the March 21, 1999 Academy Awards when the recipient of an Oscar was acknowledged by all major media as having testified against his friends to the House Un-American Activities Committee, provides just a hint of the thousands of professors and intellectuals whose careers were destroyed or badly damaged.

As these conscientious voices were silenced, the careers of academics, reporters, and writers parroting the CIA’s Mighty Wurlitzer creations soared.

Little did they know that, just like the hard right, Aryan Nations, Posse Commitatus, John Birch Society, etc, absurdities which all respectable academics know better than to source, imperial nations were creating their own reality, reporters and academics were unwittingly recording this misinformation as reality, and everyone was referencing each other as authoritative sources.

Ralph McGehee was a career CIA agent who spent the last few years of his career studying CIA archives. He concluded:

The CIA [was not then nor had it ever been] a central intelligence agency. It [was] the covert action arm of the President’s foreign policy advisers. In that capacity it overthrows or supports foreign governments while reporting “intelligence” justifying those activities. It shapes its intelligence … to support presidential policy. Disinformation is a large part of its covert action responsibility, and the American people [and legislators] are the primary target of its lies.[8]

To target the American people, American intelligence services simultaneously targeted those the masses look up to for interpreting our world, Congress, academia, and the media.

Reformed CIA agent McGehee claimed “He has never once seen a CIA official tell the truth to Congress. Instead came a steady stream of lies.”

Even the information going to those with security clearances is controlled. This explains why academics and other intellectuals are so misled and, in turn, mislead the citizenry.

The Mighty Wurlitzer was established to write a history protecting powerbrokers as they imposed enormous violence upon the world to protect their wealth and power.

Those outright lies and distorted stories are recorded as real history and there is little else in the media of record. Perhaps this is true of all empires but, if that pattern of encasing society within belief systems through strategies of tension, covert actions, military power, and then distorting the record as they write history is ever to be broken, we must recognize and analyze this process.

Controlling Nations on the Periphery of Empire

After WW II, colonial nations were declaring their full independence. Many were electing democratic governments and hoping to emulate the United States’ economic successes and freedoms.

The loss of the resources in their former colonies meant impoverishment for the war-shattered historic imperial centers of capital. For the American-led coalition of empires to regain control it was crucial that the educational institutions and the media of emerging countries not be permitted unbiased observation and critiques of the maneuvers of the superpowers.

Newly-free democracies therefore had to be covertly overthrown and puppet governments put in place, Indonesia, Iran, Chile, Guatemala, Nicaragua, etc. Yugoslavia too had to be militarily suppressed, fragmented, and submissive governments installed.

Even though many of the colonial oppressed world fought hard and suffered tens of thousands, hundreds of thousands, and even a few millions of casualties, most were unable to break free.

Massive military and financial support was put behind puppet dictators to prevent loss of those countries by the vote. The citizens of the imperial centers accepted these interferences into other countries because the information reaching them through the CIA’s Mighty Wurlitzer essentially reversed reality.

Dictators were described with the buzzword “authoritarian governments” or even “democracies” while true fledgling democracies, defending themselves against overthrow by CIA covert destabilizations, were portrayed as “dictatorships.”

Freedom and democracy are taught, preached, and believed in throughout the world. So suppression of any break for freedom could only be accomplished under a cover of “free” elections.

Progressive leaders could easily explain true freedom to their followers. To silence them and subvert elections required funding the campaigns of dictators, establishing reactionary newspapers, and establish death squads.

But not even these black-ops could fool the people into voting against their own best interests. No matter how idealistic these 2nd and 3rd tier planners were it was obvious to them that those standing up and preaching freedom for their countries had to be eliminated.

Talking to ex-CIA agent Ralph McGehee, the party quoted above, I said, “America established and orchestrated those death squads.” His instant response, “Of course we did.”

On December 3, 2001, President Vicente Fox of Mexico admitted Mexico kidnapped, tortured, and murdered, hundreds of “leftists” during the 1960s and 1970s. Leftists of course were, and still are, a buzzword for any progressives outside the ideological control of the established political powers.

Because they were so thoroughly indoctrinated into the enemy belief system, idealistic people, no different than you and I but not having looked deeper, established and orchestrated death squads which assassinated thousands of teachers, professors, labor leaders, cooperative leaders, and church leaders, the budding Washingtons, Jeffersons, Madisons, Lenins, Gandhis, and Martin Luther Kings of those countries.

Then, to protect this exceptionally violent suppression of freedom and democracy by imperial centers of capital, the Mighty Wurlitzers of those imperial nations created the image to the world that these primarily nonviolent, patriotic, and courageous people were terrorists and a threat to the world.

Insurgents battling for freedom today, who would be praised as heroes if they had been fighting for America’s revolution in 1776, or any other major nation’s revolution, were dealt with by U.S.-supported military forces.

Potential civilian leaders, whose only threat was winning at the ballot box, were dealt with by CIA-orchestrated death squads.

One marvels at the courage of these men and women who kept standing up for freedom and rights in their country and for their people when they knew their name would go on a death squad list.

How can one help but notice how those heroes on the periphery of trading empires are fighting for freedom just as America fought for its freedom in 1776.

With U.S. military forces in 130 countries around the world, with a military budget reaching the level of the entire rest of the world, and with the largest of those military powers tentatively allied with America as an empire, it is impossible for America to deny it is an empire or that, with their military and trading allies, they form an allied empire.

Where America was originally one of the smaller colonial empires, today, along with their allied centers of capital, they are, although somewhat fragile due to internal contradictions and the potential of an economic collapse, the largest and most powerful empire in history.

Of course, “trading empires” is a commonly used term but trading empires expanded and protected by military might are true empires in the deepest and most original meaning of the word.

Today’s empires are only hiding under the cover of new names, free trade, and new slogans, peace, freedom, justice, rights, and majority rule.

One of the most successful planned writings of false history is our next story NSC-68, the Master Plan for the Cold War

Those crucial 170 words describing an honest, efficient, capitalist economy. Does anyone have the ear of President Barack Obama’s Economic Recovery Team?

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[1] Errol E Harris, Earth Federation Now: Tomorrow is too Late (www.ied.info: the Institute for Economic Democracy, 2005; Glen Martin, Basic Documents of the Emerging Earth Federation (www.ied.info: the Institute for Economic Democracy, 2006).

[2] Peter Coleman, Liberal Conspiracy (London: Collier Macmillan Publishers), dustjacket; Frances Stoner Saunders, The Cultural Cold War: The CIA and the World of Arts and Letters (New York: The Free Press, 1999).

[3] Saunders, The Cultural Cold War, pp. 1-3, 197.

[4] William F. Pepper, An Act of State: The Execution of Martin Luther King (New York: Verso, 2003), p. 135.

[5] Saunders, The Cultural Cold War, pp. 1-3, 37, 60-63, 68, 71, 91, 101-39, 142, 150-51, 166, 201, 206, 245, 294-99, 353-58, 382, 403-403, 409-411, 420, more author’s names were listed on the dustjacket; Angus MacKenzie, Secrets: The CIA’s War at Home (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997), pp. 2, 29, 40, 61-72, 185; See also, Coleman, Liberal Conspiracy.

[6] During those crucial years, publishing honest current history or research could only be done at the margins. Where reality was extremely tough to find, great exposure books are now published by the hundreds and some are selling by the tens of thousands. This means the world today is not controllable as it was then and that—primarily addressed in the Conclusion—is central to our thesis.

[7] Run a Google/Nexus-Lexus Internet search using keywords, names, and countries on these pages. The history of America’s state terrorism worldwide is deeply hidden and most records have been destroyed. (Witness Bamford’s exposure on how General Lemnitzer destroyed the records on the Pentagon’s plans for staging an attack on America, which included American deaths, to create an excuse to over throw Fidel Castro of Cuba.) The following books provide a good view of that history: Chalmers Johnson, The Sorrows of Empire: Militarism, Secrecy, and the End of the Republic (New York: Metropolitan Books, 2004); Clara Nieto, Masters of War: Latin America and U.S. Aggression (New York: Michel Chossudovsky The Globalization of Poverty and the New World Order 2nd edition (Ontario: Global outlook, 2003); (Samantha Power, “A Problem from Hell”: America and the Age of Genocide (New York: Basic Books, 2002); Franken, Al, Lies and the Lying Liars who tell them; A Fair and Balanced Look at the Right (New York: Penguin, 2003); Jones, Dorothy N., Toward a Just World (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002); Hartmann, Thom, Unequal Protection: The rise of Corporate Dominance and the Theft of Human Rights (Mythical Research Inc, 2002); Mearsheimer, John J., The Tragedy of Great Power Politics (New York: W.W. Norton, 2001; Mead, Walter Russell, Special Providence: American Foreign Policy and How it Changed the World (UK: Routledge, 2002); Chang, Nancy, Silencing Political Dissent: How September 11 Anti-Terrorism Measures Threaten Our Civil Liberties (New York: Seven Stories Press, 2002); Austin Murphy, The Triumph of Evil: The Reality of the USA’s Cold War Victory (Italy: European Press Academic Publishing, 2000); James Bamford, Body of Secrets: Anatomy of the Ultra-Secret National Security Agency (New York: Doubleday, 2001), especially pp. 70-75; John Quigley, The Ruses for War: American Interventionism Since World War II (Buffalo: Prometheus Books, 1992); L. Fletcher Prouty, The Secret Team (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1973); Peter Coleman, Liberal Conspiracy; Michael T. Klare, Resource Wars: The New Landscape of Global Conflict (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 2001); Michel Chossudovsky, The Globalization of Poverty: Impacts of IMF and World Bank Reforms (London: Zed Books, 1997); William Blum, Rogue State: A Guide to the World’s Only Super Power (Monroe, ME: Common Courage Press, 2000), Killing Hope: U.S. Military Interventions Since World War II (Monroe, ME: Common Courage Press, 1995), and The CIA: A Forgotten History (London: Zed Press, 1986), pp. 127-28, 131, 185; Chalmers Johnson, Blowback: The Cost and Consequences of American Empire (New York: Henry Holt & Company, 2000), p. 117; John Prados, The Presidents’ Secret Wars (New York: William Morrow, 1986) and The President’ Secret Wars: CIA and Pentagon Covert Operations From World War II Through the Persian Gulf War Warwick: Elephant Paperbacks, 1996); John Stockwell, The Praetorian Guard (Boston: South End Press, 1991), pp. 100-101; Ted Gup, The Book of Honor: Covert Lives and Classified Deaths at the CIA (New York: Doubleday, 2,000); Dan Jacobs, The Brutality of Nations (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1987); P.V. Parakal, Secret Wars of the CIA (New Delhi: Sterling Publishers, 1984); K. Nair, Devil and His Dart: How the CIA is Plotting in the Third World (New Delhi: Sterling, 1986); I.F. Stone, The Hidden History of the Korean War (Boston: Little Brown and Company, 1952); Victor Marchetti and John D. Marks, The CIA and the Cult of Intelligence (New York: Dell, 1980), chapter 6, especially pp. 152-56, also pp. 53-54, 62-63, 541-42; Ralph W. McGehee, Deadly Deceits (New York: Sheridan Square Press, 1983), especially pp. 30, 58, 62, 189; Philip Agee and Louis Wolf, Dirty Work (London: Zed Press, 1978), especially p. 262; Loch .K. Johnson, America’s Secret Power (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989); David Wise, Thomas B. Ross, The Espionage Establishment (New York: Bantam Books, 1978), pp. 256, 257; H.B. Westerfield, Inside CIA’s Private World: Declassified Articles from the Agency’s Internal Journal 1955-1992 (New Haven, CT. Yale University Press, 1995); Frank J. Donner, The Age of Surveillance: The Aims and Methods of America’s Political Intelligence System (New York: Random House, 1981); John Prados, Keepers of the Keys: A History of the National Security Council from Truman to Bush (New York: William Morrow, 1991); C.D. Ameringer, U.S. Foreign Intelligence (Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1990); J. Adams, Secret Armies (New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1987); T. Powers, The Man Who Kept the Secrets (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1979); Christopher Simpson, Blowback (New York: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1988); Ernest Volkman, Blaine Baggett, Secret Intelligence (New York: Doubleday, 1989); John Ranelagh, The Agency: The Rise and Decline of the CIA (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1987); Darrell Garwood, Under Cover: Thirty-Five Years of CIA Deception (New York: Grove Press Inc., 1985); Philip Agee, Inside the Company: CIA Diary (New York: Bantam Books, 1975); B. Hersh, The Old Boys: The American Elite and the Origins of the CIA (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1992); H. Rositzke, The CIA’s Secret Operations (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1977); E. Thomas, The Very Best Men Four Who Dared: The Early Years of the CIA (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995); D.S. Blaufarb, The Counterinsurgency Era: U.S. Doctrine and Performance 1950 to Present (New York: The Free Press, 1977); Michael T. Klare and P. Kornbluh, Low Intensity Warfare (New York: Pantheon Books, 1988); Alexander Cockburn and Jeffrey St. Clair, Whiteout: The CIA, Drugs and the Press (New York: Verso, 1998); S.E. Ambrose, Ike’s Spies (Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, 1981); Susanne Jonas, The Battle for Guatemala: Rebels, Death Squads, and U.S. Power (San Francisco: Westview Press, 1991); C. Andrew, For the President’s Eyes Only: Secret Intelligence and the American Presidency from Washington to Bush (New York: HarperCollins Publishers 1995); H. Frazier, ed., Uncloaking the CIA (New York: The Free Press, 1978); Covert Action Information Bulletin, all issues; Counterspy, all issues. See also, Wendell Minnick, Spies and Provocateurs: A Worldwide Encyclopedia of Persons Conducting Espionage and Covert Action, 1946-1991 (Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company,1992); John Loftus, The Belarus Secret (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1982); Robin W. Winks, Cloak & Gown: Scholars in the Secret War, 1939-1961 (New York: Quill, 1987); D.F. Fleming, The Cold War and Its Origins (New York: Doubleday & Company, 1961); Nora Sayre, Running Time: Films of the Cold War (New York: Dial Press, 1980); Milton Mayer, They Thought They Were Free (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1955).

To understand financial and economic warfare, read Peter Gowan, The Global Gamble: Washington’s Faustian Bid for World Dominance (New York: verso, 1999); John Gray, False Dawn (New York: The Free Press, 1998); Robert A. Pastor, Ed., A Century’s Journey: How the Great Powers Shape the World (New York: Basic Books, 1999); Anders Stephanson, Kennan and the Art of Foreign Policy (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1989); David Mayers, George Kennan and the Dilemmas of US Foreign Policy (New York: Oxford University Press, 1988); John R. Commons, Legal Foundations of Capitalism (New Brunswick/London: Transaction Publishers, 1995); John R. Commons, Institutional Economics (New Brunswick/London: Transaction Publishers, 1995); Carey B. Joynt and Percy E. Corbett, Theory and Reality in World Politics (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1978); Richard L. Rubenstein, The Age of Triage (Boston: Beacon Press, 1983); Peter Rodman, More Precious than Peace (New York: Charles Scribner & Sons, 1994); Angelo Codevilla, Informing Statecraft (New York: The Free Press, 1992); Arie E. David, The Strategy of Treaty Termination (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1975); Francis Neilson, How Diplomats Make War (San Francisco: Cobden Press); Jerry Fresia, Toward an American Revolution: Exposing the Constitution and Other Illusions (Boston, South End Press), 1988.

For how the purpose of Western intelligence services are to control the beliefs of its citizens, and how much of the violence are covert operations to maintain this control, read L. Fletcher Prouty, JFK: The CIA, Vietnam, And the Plot to Kill Kennedy (New York: Carol Publishing, 1992) and Philip. Willan, Puppetmasters: The Political Use of Terrorism in Italy (London: Constable, 1991), provides a short description of how strategies of tension are used worldwide to control beliefs and thus control elections. Alex Carey’s Taking the Risk out of Democracy; Corporate Propaganda versus Freedom and Liberty (Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1995) is an in-depth analysis of corporate propaganda pushed through the government, media, and academia throughout the 20th century.

For more scholarly studies on the media read: Richard O Curry, An Uncertain Future: Thought Control and Repression During the Reagan-Bush Era (Los Angeles: First Amendment Foundation, 1992); John Downing, Radical Media.(Boston: South End Press, 1984); Edward S. Herman and Noam Chomsky, Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media (New York: Pantheon, 1988); Brooks Jackson, Honest Graft: Big Money and the American Political Process (New York: Alfred A Knopf, 1988); Naomi Klein, No Logo (New York: Random House, 1999); Martin A. Lee and Norman Solomon, Unreliable Sources: A Guide to Detecting Bias in the news (New York: Carol Publishing, 1990);. Walter Lippmann, Public Opinion (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1949); David W. Moore, The Super Pollsters: How they Measure and Manipulate Public Opinion in America (New York: Four Walls Eight Windows, 1992); Michael Parenti,­ Inventing Reality: The Politics of the Mass Media (New York: St Martins’s Press, 1986); John Stauber and Sheldon Ramption, Toxic Sludge is Good for You: Lies, Damn Lies and the Public Relations Industry (Monroe, ME: Common Courage Press, 1995).

[8] Ralph McGehee, Deadly Deceit. (New York: Sheridan Square Press, 1983), p. 192.

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